Olanzapine for Injection
  • AP Rated to Zyprexa®*
  • Vial closure is not made with natural rubber latex
  • Preservative Free




NDC Number
Strength
Size
Shelf Pack
Availability
Product Information
Arrow Up 0517-0955-01 10 mg/vial Single Use Vial 1 In Stock Product Label
Full Prescribing Information
Safety Data Sheet
Bottle
Wholesaler Numbers
ABC/SAP Cardinal HD Smith McKesson
10106294 4601126 1290766 681049
Case Information
Unit of Sale NDC Order Size Case Size Case Per Tier
0517-0955-01 1 164 42


*Zyprexa® is a registered trademark of Eli Lilly and Company


NDC Number
Arrow Up 0517-0955-01
Strength
10 mg/vial
Size
10 mL
Single Use Vial
Shelf Pack
1
Availability
In Stock
Product Information
Product Label
Full Prescribing Information
Safety Data Sheet
Bottle
ABC/SAP Cardinal HD Smith McKesson
10106294 4601126 1290766 681049
Unit of Sale NDC Order Size Case Size Case Per Tier
0517-0955-01 1 164 42




INDICATIONS AND USAGE Agitation Associated with Schizophrenia and Bipolar I Mania. Olanzapine for injection is indicated for the treatment of acute agitation associated with schizophrenia and bipolar I mania. Efficacy was demonstrated in 3 short-term (24 hours of Intramuscular treatment) placebo-controlled trials in agitated adult inpatients with: schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes). “Psychomotor agitation” is defined in DSM-IV as “excessive motor activity associated with a feeling of inner tension.” Patients experiencing agitation often manifest behaviors that interfere with their diagnosis and care, e.g., threatening behaviors, escalating or urgently distressing behavior, or self-exhausting behavior, leading clinicians to the use of intramuscular antipsychotic medications to achieve immediate control of the agitation. IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
WARNING: INCREASED MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of seventeen placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug- treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug- treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. Olanzapine for injection is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.
CONTRAINDICATIONS
  • None with olanzapine monotherapy.
  • For specific information about the contraindications of lithium or valproate, refer to the Contraindications section of the package inserts for these other products.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis
Increased Mortality — Elderly patients with dementia- related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Olanzapine for injection is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.
In placebo-controlled clinical trials of elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, the incidence of death in olanzapine-treated patients was significantly greater than placebo-treated patients (3.5% vs. 1.5%, respectively). Cerebrovascular Adverse Events (CVAE), Including Stroke — Cerebrovascular adverse events (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), including fatalities, were reported in patients in trials of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis. In placebo-controlled trials, there was a significantly higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events in patients treated with olanzapine compared to patients treated with placebo. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. Suicide
The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in schizophrenia and in bipolar I disorder, and close supervision of high-risk patients should accompany drug therapy. Prescriptions for olanzapine should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)
A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs, including olanzapine. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatinine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure.
The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to exclude cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever, and primary central nervous system pathology. The management of NMS should include: 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy; 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring; and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for NMS. If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported. Metabolic Changes
Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with metabolic changes including hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and weight gain. Metabolic changes may be associated with increased cardiovascular/cerebrovascular risk. Olanzapine’s specific metabolic profile is presented below.
Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus
Physicians should consider the risks and benefits when prescribing olanzapine to patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, or having borderline increased blood glucose level (fasting 100 to 126 mg/dL, non-fasting (140 to 200 mg/dL). Patients taking olanzapine should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Patients starting treatment with olanzapine should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment and periodically during treatment. Any patient treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. In some cases, hyperglycemia has resolved when the atypical antipsychotic was discontinued; however, some patients required continuation of anti-diabetic treatment despite discontinuation of the suspect drug.
Dyslipidemia
Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed with olanzapine use. Clinical monitoring, including baseline and periodic follow-up lipid evaluations in patients using olanzapine, is recommended.
Weight Gain
Potential consequences of weight gain should be considered prior to starting olanzapine. Patients receiving olanzapine should receive regular monitoring of weight.
Tardive Dyskinesia
A syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements may develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the inception of antipsychotic treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown.
Orthostatic Hypotension
Olanzapine may induce orthostatic hypotension associated with dizziness, tachycardia, and bradycardia and, in some patients, syncope, especially during the initial dose-titration period, probably reflecting its α1-adrenergic antagonistic properties.
Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis
Class Effect — in clinical trial and/or postmarketing experience, events of leukopenia/neutropenia have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents, including olanzapine. Agranulocytosis has also been reported.
Dysphagia
Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced Alzheimer’s disease. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
Seizures
During premarketing testing, seizures occurred in 0.9% (22/2500) of olanzapine-treated patients. There were confounding factors that may have contributed to the occurrence of seizures in many of these cases. Olanzapine should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that potentially lower the seizure threshold, e.g., Alzheimer’s dementia. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in a population of 65 years or older.
Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment
Somnolence was a commonly reported adverse reaction associated with olanzapine treatment, occurring at an incidence of 26% in olanzapine patients compared to 15% in placebo patients. This adverse reaction was also dose related. Somnolence led to discontinuation in 0.4% (9/2500) of patients in the premarketing database.
Body Temperature Regulation
Disruption of the body’s ability to reduce core body temperature has been attributed to antipsychotic agents. Appropriate care is advised when prescribing olanzapine for patients who will be experiencing conditions which may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature, e.g., exercising strenuously, exposure to extreme heat, receiving concomitant medication with anticholinergic activity, or being subject to dehydration.
Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness
Clinical experience with olanzapine in patients with certain concomitant systemic illnesses is limited.
Hyperprolactinemia
As with other drugs that antagonize dopamine D2 receptors, olanzapine elevates prolactin levels, and the elevation persists during chronic administration. Hyperprolactinemia may suppress hypothalamic GnRH, resulting in reduced pituitary gonadotropin secretion. This, in turn, may inhibit reproductive function by impairing gonadal steroidogenesis in both female and male patients. Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, and impotence have been reported in patients receiving prolactin-elevating compounds. Long-standing hyperprolactinemia when associated with hypogonadism may lead to decreased bone density in both female and male subjects.
Use in Combination with Lithium, or Valproate
When using olanzapine for injection in combination with lithium or valproate, the prescriber should refer to the Warnings and Precautions sections of the package inserts for lithium or valproate.
Laboratory Tests
Fasting blood glucose testing and lipid profile at the beginning of, and periodically during, treatment is recommended.
ADVERSE REACTIONS Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect or predict the rates observed in practice.
DRUG INTERACTIONS The risks of using olanzapine in combination with other drugs have not been extensively evaluated in systematic studies. Potential for Other Drugs to Affect Olanzapine
Diazepam — The co-administration of diazepam with olanzapine potentiated the orthostatic hypotension observed with olanzapine.
Cimetidine and Antacids — Single doses of cimetidine (800 mg) or aluminum- and magnesium-containing antacids did not affect the oral bioavailability of olanzapine.
Inducers of CYP1A2 — Carbamazepine therapy (200 mg bid) causes an approximately 50% increase in the clearance of olanzapine. This increase is likely due to the fact that carbamazepine is a potent inducer of CYP1A2 activity. Higher daily doses of carbamazepine may cause an even greater increase in olanzapine clearance.
Alcohol — Ethanol (45 mg/70 kg single dose) did not have an effect on olanzapine pharmacokinetics. The co-administration of alcohol (i.e., ethanol) with olanzapine potentiated the orthostatic hypotension observed with olanzapine.
Inhibitors of CYP1A2
Fluvoxamine: Fluvoxamine, a CYP1A2 inhibitor, decreases the clearance of olanzapine. This results in a mean increase in olanzapine Cmax following fluvoxamine of 54% in female nonsmokers and 77% in male smokers. The mean increase in olanzapine AUC is 52% and 108%, respectively. Lower doses of olanzapine should be considered in patients receiving concomitant treatment with fluvoxamine.
Inhibitors of CYP2D6
Fluoxetine: Fluoxetine (60 mg single dose or 60 mg daily dose for 8 days) causes a small (mean 16%) increase in the maximum concentration of olanzapine and a small (mean 16%) decrease in olanzapine clearance. The magnitude of the impact of this factor is small in comparison to the overall variability between individuals, and therefore dose modification is not routinely recommended.
Warfarin - Warfarin (20 mg single dose) did not affect olanzapine pharmacokinetics.
Inducers of CYP1A2 or Glucuronyl Transferase - Omeprazole and rifampin may cause an increase in olanzapine clearance. Charcoal — The administration of activated charcoal (1 g) reduced the Cmax and AUC of oral olanzapine by about 60%. As peak olanzapine levels are not typically obtained until about 6 hours after dosing, charcoal may be a useful treatment for olanzapine overdose.
Potential for Olanzapine to Affect Other Drugs
CNS Acting Drugs - Given the primary CNS effects of olanzapine, caution should be used when olanzapine is taken in combination with other centrally acting drugs and alcohol.
Antihypertensive Agents - Olanzapine, because of its potential for inducing hypotension, may enhance the effects of certain antihypertensive agents.
Levodopa and Dopamine Agonists - Olanzapine may antagonize the effects of levodopa and dopamine agonists.
Lorazepam (IM) - Administration of intramuscular lorazepam (2 mg) 1 hour after intramuscular olanzapine for injection (5 mg) did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of olanzapine, unconjugated lorazepam, or total lorazepam. However, this co-administration of intramuscular lorazepam and intramuscular olanzapine for injection added to the somnolence observed with either drug alone.
Lithium - Multiple doses of olanzapine (10 mg for 8 days) did not influence the kinetics of lithium. Therefore, concomitant olanzapine administration does not require dosage adjustment of lithium.
Valproate - Olanzapine (10 mg daily for 2 weeks) did not affect the steady state plasma concentrations of valproate. Therefore, concomitant olanzapine administration does not require dosage adjustment of valproate.
Effect of Olanzapine on Drug Metabolizing Enzymes - In vitro studies utilizing human liver microsomes suggest that olanzapine has little potential to inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A. Thus, olanzapine is unlikely to cause clinically important drug interactions mediated by these enzymes.
Imipramine - Single doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of imipramine or its active metabolite desipramine.
Warfarin - Single doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of warfarin.
Diazepam - Olanzapine did not influence the pharmacokinetics of diazepam or its active metabolite N-desmethyldiazepam. However, diazepam co-administered with olanzapine increased the orthostatic hypotension observed with either drug given alone.
Alcohol - multiple doses of olanzapine did not influence the kinetics of ethanol.
Biperidin - multiple doses of olanzapine did not influence the kinetics of biperiden.
Theophylline - multiple doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of theophylline or its metabolites.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy
Teratogenic Effects — In oral reproduction studies in rats at doses up to 18 mg/kg/day and in rabbits at doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (9 and 30 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis, respectively) no evidence of teratogenicity was observed. In an oral rat teratology study, early resorptions and increased numbers of nonviable fetuses were observed at a dose of 18 mg/kg/day (9 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on an mg/m2 basis). Gestation was prolonged at 10 mg/kg/day (5 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on an mg/m2 basis). In an oral rabbit teratology study, fetal toxicity (manifested as increased resorptions and decreased fetal weight) occurred at a maternally toxic dose of 30 mg/kg/day (30 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on an mg/m2 basis). Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Placental transfer of olanzapine occurs in rat pups. There are no adequate and well-controlled trials with olanzapine in pregnant females. Seven pregnancies were observed during clinical trials with olanzapine, including 2 resulting in normal births, 1 resulting in neonatal death due to a cardiovascular defect, 3 therapeutic abortions, and 1 spontaneous abortion. Non-Teratogenic Effects - Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs (including olanzapine for injection), during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/ or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress and feeding disorder in these neonates. These complications have varied in severity; while in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, in other cases neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization. Olanzapine for injection should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Labor and Delivery
The effect of olanzapine on labor and delivery in humans is unknown. Parturition in rats was not affected by olanzapine.
Nursing Mothers
In a study in lactating, healthy women, olanzapine was excreted in breast milk. Mean infant dose at steady state was estimated to be 1.8% of the maternal olanzapine dose. It is recommended that women receiving olanzapine should not breast-feed.
Pediatric Use
Compared to patients from adult clinical trials, adolescents were likely to gain more weight, experience increased sedation, and have greater increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, prolactin and hepatic aminotransferase levels. When deciding among the alternative treatments available for adolescents, clinicians should consider the increased potential (in adolescents as compared with adults) for weight gain and dyslipidemia. Clinicians should consider the potential long-term risks when prescribing to adolescents, and in many cases this may lead them to consider prescribing other drugs first in adolescents.
Safety and effectiveness of olanzapine for injection in children <13 years of age have not been established. Geriatric Use
Studies in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis have suggested that there may be a different tolerability profile in this population compared to younger patients with schizophrenia. Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with olanzapine are at an increased risk of death compared to placebo. In placebo-controlled studies of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, there was a higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack) in patients treated with olanzapine compared to patients treated with placebo. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. Also, the presence of factors that might decrease pharmacokinetic clearance or increase the pharmacodynamic response to olanzapine should lead to consideration of a lower starting dose for any geriatric patient.










INDICATIONS AND USAGE Agitation Associated with Schizophrenia and Bipolar I Mania. Olanzapine for injection is indicated for the treatment of acute agitation associated with schizophrenia and bipolar I mania. Efficacy was demonstrated in 3 short-term (24 hours of Intramuscular treatment) placebo-controlled trials in agitated adult inpatients with: schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes). “Psychomotor agitation” is defined in DSM-IV as “excessive motor activity associated with a feeling of inner tension.” Patients experiencing agitation often manifest behaviors that interfere with their diagnosis and care, e.g., threatening behaviors, escalating or urgently distressing behavior, or self-exhausting behavior, leading clinicians to the use of intramuscular antipsychotic medications to achieve immediate control of the agitation. IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
WARNING: INCREASED MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of seventeen placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug- treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug- treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. Olanzapine for injection is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.
CONTRAINDICATIONS
  • None with olanzapine monotherapy.
  • For specific information about the contraindications of lithium or valproate, refer to the Contraindications section of the package inserts for these other products.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis
Increased Mortality — Elderly patients with dementia- related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Olanzapine for injection is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.
In placebo-controlled clinical trials of elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, the incidence of death in olanzapine-treated patients was significantly greater than placebo-treated patients (3.5% vs. 1.5%, respectively). Cerebrovascular Adverse Events (CVAE), Including Stroke — Cerebrovascular adverse events (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), including fatalities, were reported in patients in trials of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis. In placebo-controlled trials, there was a significantly higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events in patients treated with olanzapine compared to patients treated with placebo. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. Suicide
The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in schizophrenia and in bipolar I disorder, and close supervision of high-risk patients should accompany drug therapy. Prescriptions for olanzapine should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)
A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs, including olanzapine. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatinine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure.
The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to exclude cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever, and primary central nervous system pathology. The management of NMS should include: 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy; 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring; and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for NMS. If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported. Metabolic Changes
Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with metabolic changes including hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and weight gain. Metabolic changes may be associated with increased cardiovascular/cerebrovascular risk. Olanzapine’s specific metabolic profile is presented below.
Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus
Physicians should consider the risks and benefits when prescribing olanzapine to patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, or having borderline increased blood glucose level (fasting 100 to 126 mg/dL, non-fasting (140 to 200 mg/dL). Patients taking olanzapine should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Patients starting treatment with olanzapine should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment and periodically during treatment. Any patient treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. In some cases, hyperglycemia has resolved when the atypical antipsychotic was discontinued; however, some patients required continuation of anti-diabetic treatment despite discontinuation of the suspect drug.
Dyslipidemia
Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed with olanzapine use. Clinical monitoring, including baseline and periodic follow-up lipid evaluations in patients using olanzapine, is recommended.
Weight Gain
Potential consequences of weight gain should be considered prior to starting olanzapine. Patients receiving olanzapine should receive regular monitoring of weight.
Tardive Dyskinesia
A syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements may develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the inception of antipsychotic treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown.
Orthostatic Hypotension
Olanzapine may induce orthostatic hypotension associated with dizziness, tachycardia, and bradycardia and, in some patients, syncope, especially during the initial dose-titration period, probably reflecting its α1-adrenergic antagonistic properties.
Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis
Class Effect — in clinical trial and/or postmarketing experience, events of leukopenia/neutropenia have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents, including olanzapine. Agranulocytosis has also been reported.
Dysphagia
Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced Alzheimer’s disease. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
Seizures
During premarketing testing, seizures occurred in 0.9% (22/2500) of olanzapine-treated patients. There were confounding factors that may have contributed to the occurrence of seizures in many of these cases. Olanzapine should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that potentially lower the seizure threshold, e.g., Alzheimer’s dementia. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in a population of 65 years or older.
Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment
Somnolence was a commonly reported adverse reaction associated with olanzapine treatment, occurring at an incidence of 26% in olanzapine patients compared to 15% in placebo patients. This adverse reaction was also dose related. Somnolence led to discontinuation in 0.4% (9/2500) of patients in the premarketing database.
Body Temperature Regulation
Disruption of the body’s ability to reduce core body temperature has been attributed to antipsychotic agents. Appropriate care is advised when prescribing olanzapine for patients who will be experiencing conditions which may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature, e.g., exercising strenuously, exposure to extreme heat, receiving concomitant medication with anticholinergic activity, or being subject to dehydration.
Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness
Clinical experience with olanzapine in patients with certain concomitant systemic illnesses is limited.
Hyperprolactinemia
As with other drugs that antagonize dopamine D2 receptors, olanzapine elevates prolactin levels, and the elevation persists during chronic administration. Hyperprolactinemia may suppress hypothalamic GnRH, resulting in reduced pituitary gonadotropin secretion. This, in turn, may inhibit reproductive function by impairing gonadal steroidogenesis in both female and male patients. Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, and impotence have been reported in patients receiving prolactin-elevating compounds. Long-standing hyperprolactinemia when associated with hypogonadism may lead to decreased bone density in both female and male subjects.
Use in Combination with Lithium, or Valproate
When using olanzapine for injection in combination with lithium or valproate, the prescriber should refer to the Warnings and Precautions sections of the package inserts for lithium or valproate.
Laboratory Tests
Fasting blood glucose testing and lipid profile at the beginning of, and periodically during, treatment is recommended.
ADVERSE REACTIONS Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect or predict the rates observed in practice.
DRUG INTERACTIONS The risks of using olanzapine in combination with other drugs have not been extensively evaluated in systematic studies. Potential for Other Drugs to Affect Olanzapine
Diazepam — The co-administration of diazepam with olanzapine potentiated the orthostatic hypotension observed with olanzapine.
Cimetidine and Antacids — Single doses of cimetidine (800 mg) or aluminum- and magnesium-containing antacids did not affect the oral bioavailability of olanzapine.
Inducers of CYP1A2 — Carbamazepine therapy (200 mg bid) causes an approximately 50% increase in the clearance of olanzapine. This increase is likely due to the fact that carbamazepine is a potent inducer of CYP1A2 activity. Higher daily doses of carbamazepine may cause an even greater increase in olanzapine clearance.
Alcohol — Ethanol (45 mg/70 kg single dose) did not have an effect on olanzapine pharmacokinetics. The co-administration of alcohol (i.e., ethanol) with olanzapine potentiated the orthostatic hypotension observed with olanzapine.
Inhibitors of CYP1A2
Fluvoxamine: Fluvoxamine, a CYP1A2 inhibitor, decreases the clearance of olanzapine. This results in a mean increase in olanzapine Cmax following fluvoxamine of 54% in female nonsmokers and 77% in male smokers. The mean increase in olanzapine AUC is 52% and 108%, respectively. Lower doses of olanzapine should be considered in patients receiving concomitant treatment with fluvoxamine.
Inhibitors of CYP2D6
Fluoxetine: Fluoxetine (60 mg single dose or 60 mg daily dose for 8 days) causes a small (mean 16%) increase in the maximum concentration of olanzapine and a small (mean 16%) decrease in olanzapine clearance. The magnitude of the impact of this factor is small in comparison to the overall variability between individuals, and therefore dose modification is not routinely recommended.
Warfarin - Warfarin (20 mg single dose) did not affect olanzapine pharmacokinetics.
Inducers of CYP1A2 or Glucuronyl Transferase - Omeprazole and rifampin may cause an increase in olanzapine clearance. Charcoal — The administration of activated charcoal (1 g) reduced the Cmax and AUC of oral olanzapine by about 60%. As peak olanzapine levels are not typically obtained until about 6 hours after dosing, charcoal may be a useful treatment for olanzapine overdose.
Potential for Olanzapine to Affect Other Drugs
CNS Acting Drugs - Given the primary CNS effects of olanzapine, caution should be used when olanzapine is taken in combination with other centrally acting drugs and alcohol.
Antihypertensive Agents - Olanzapine, because of its potential for inducing hypotension, may enhance the effects of certain antihypertensive agents.
Levodopa and Dopamine Agonists - Olanzapine may antagonize the effects of levodopa and dopamine agonists.
Lorazepam (IM) - Administration of intramuscular lorazepam (2 mg) 1 hour after intramuscular olanzapine for injection (5 mg) did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of olanzapine, unconjugated lorazepam, or total lorazepam. However, this co-administration of intramuscular lorazepam and intramuscular olanzapine for injection added to the somnolence observed with either drug alone.
Lithium - Multiple doses of olanzapine (10 mg for 8 days) did not influence the kinetics of lithium. Therefore, concomitant olanzapine administration does not require dosage adjustment of lithium.
Valproate - Olanzapine (10 mg daily for 2 weeks) did not affect the steady state plasma concentrations of valproate. Therefore, concomitant olanzapine administration does not require dosage adjustment of valproate.
Effect of Olanzapine on Drug Metabolizing Enzymes - In vitro studies utilizing human liver microsomes suggest that olanzapine has little potential to inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A. Thus, olanzapine is unlikely to cause clinically important drug interactions mediated by these enzymes.
Imipramine - Single doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of imipramine or its active metabolite desipramine.
Warfarin - Single doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of warfarin.
Diazepam - Olanzapine did not influence the pharmacokinetics of diazepam or its active metabolite N-desmethyldiazepam. However, diazepam co-administered with olanzapine increased the orthostatic hypotension observed with either drug given alone.
Alcohol - multiple doses of olanzapine did not influence the kinetics of ethanol.
Biperidin - multiple doses of olanzapine did not influence the kinetics of biperiden.
Theophylline - multiple doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of theophylline or its metabolites.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy
Teratogenic Effects — In oral reproduction studies in rats at doses up to 18 mg/kg/day and in rabbits at doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (9 and 30 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis, respectively) no evidence of teratogenicity was observed. In an oral rat teratology study, early resorptions and increased numbers of nonviable fetuses were observed at a dose of 18 mg/kg/day (9 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on an mg/m2 basis). Gestation was prolonged at 10 mg/kg/day (5 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on an mg/m2 basis). In an oral rabbit teratology study, fetal toxicity (manifested as increased resorptions and decreased fetal weight) occurred at a maternally toxic dose of 30 mg/kg/day (30 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on an mg/m2 basis). Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Placental transfer of olanzapine occurs in rat pups. There are no adequate and well-controlled trials with olanzapine in pregnant females. Seven pregnancies were observed during clinical trials with olanzapine, including 2 resulting in normal births, 1 resulting in neonatal death due to a cardiovascular defect, 3 therapeutic abortions, and 1 spontaneous abortion. Non-Teratogenic Effects - Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs (including olanzapine for injection), during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/ or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress and feeding disorder in these neonates. These complications have varied in severity; while in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, in other cases neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization. Olanzapine for injection should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Labor and Delivery
The effect of olanzapine on labor and delivery in humans is unknown. Parturition in rats was not affected by olanzapine.
Nursing Mothers
In a study in lactating, healthy women, olanzapine was excreted in breast milk. Mean infant dose at steady state was estimated to be 1.8% of the maternal olanzapine dose. It is recommended that women receiving olanzapine should not breast-feed.
Pediatric Use
Compared to patients from adult clinical trials, adolescents were likely to gain more weight, experience increased sedation, and have greater increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, prolactin and hepatic aminotransferase levels. When deciding among the alternative treatments available for adolescents, clinicians should consider the increased potential (in adolescents as compared with adults) for weight gain and dyslipidemia. Clinicians should consider the potential long-term risks when prescribing to adolescents, and in many cases this may lead them to consider prescribing other drugs first in adolescents.
Safety and effectiveness of olanzapine for injection in children <13 years of age have not been established. Geriatric Use
Studies in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis have suggested that there may be a different tolerability profile in this population compared to younger patients with schizophrenia. Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with olanzapine are at an increased risk of death compared to placebo. In placebo-controlled studies of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, there was a higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack) in patients treated with olanzapine compared to patients treated with placebo. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. Also, the presence of factors that might decrease pharmacokinetic clearance or increase the pharmacodynamic response to olanzapine should lead to consideration of a lower starting dose for any geriatric patient.


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PP-AS-US-0014     4/2017