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Extravasation must be rigidly avoided. Do not give subcutaneously or intramuscularly. CONTRAINDICATIONS Anuria and hypersensitivity to any component of this product or to other sulfonamide-derived drugs. WARNINGS Intravenous use in infants and children has been limited and is not generally recommended.
Use with caution in severe renal disease. In patients with renal disease, thiazides may precipitate azotemia.
Cumulative effects of the drug may develop in patients with impaired renal function.
Thiazides should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, since minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma.
Thiazides may add to or potentiate the action of other antihypertensive drugs.
Sensitivity reactions may occur in patients with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma.
The possibility of exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus has been reported.
Lithium generally should not be given with diuretics. PRECAUTIONS General All patients receiving diuretic therapy should be observed for evidence of fluid or electrolyte imbalance: namely, hyponatremia, hypochloremic alkalosis, and hypokalemia. Serum and urine electrolyte determinations are particularly important when the patient is vomiting excessively or receiving parenteral fluids. Warning signs or symptoms of fluid and electrolyte imbalance, irrespective of cause, include dryness of mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, confusion, seizures, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, and gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting. Hypokalemia may develop especially with brisk diuresis, when severe cirrhosis is present or after prolonged therapy. Hyperuricemia may occur or acute gout may be precipitated in certain patients receiving thiazides. In diabetic patients dosage adjustments of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents may be required. Hyperglycemia may occur with thiazide diuretics. Thus latent diabetes mellitus may become manifest during thiazide therapy. The antihypertensive effects of the drug may be enhanced in the postsympathectomy patient. If progressive renal impairment becomes evident, consider withholding or discontinuing diuretic therapy. Thiazides have been shown to increase the urinary excretion of magnesium; this may result in hypomagnesemia. Thiazides may decrease urinary calcium excretion. Thiazides may cause intermittent and slight elevation of serum calcium in the absence of known disorders of calcium metabolism. Marked hypercalcemia may be evidence of hidden hyperparathyroidism. Thiazides should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function. Increases in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be associated with thiazide diuretic therapy. Drug Interactions When given concurrently the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics. Alcohol; barbiturates or narcotics; Antidiabetic drugs; Other antihypertensive drugs; Corticosteroids; ACTH; Pressor amines; Skeletal muscle relaxants; nondepolarizing; Lithium; Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs. Use in Specific Populations
Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects — Pregnancy Category C: It is not known whether chlorothiazide can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman; however, thiazides cross the placental barrier and appear in cord blood. Chlorothiazide sodium for injection should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Nonteratogenic Effects: Chlorothiazide may cause fetal or neonatal jaundice, thrombocytopenia, and possibly other adverse reactions which have occurred in the adult. Nursing Mothers Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from chlorothiazide sodium for injection, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of chlorothiazide sodium for injection in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions have been reported and, within each category, are listed in order of decreasing severity. Body as a Whole: Weakness. Cardiovascular: Hypotension including orthostatic hypotension (may be aggravated by alcohol, barbiturates, narcotics or antihypertensive drugs). Digestive: Pancreatitis, jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice), diarrhea, vomiting, sialadenitis, cramping, constipation, gastric irritation, nausea, anorexia. Hematologic: Aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia. Hypersensitivity: Anaphylactic reactions, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis), respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, photosensitivity, fever, urticaria, rash, purpura. Metabolic: Electrolyte imbalance, hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperuricemia. Musculoskeletal: Muscle spasm. Nervous System/Psychiatric: Vertigo, paresthesias, dizziness, headache, restlessness. Skin: Erythema multiforme including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis including toxic epidermal necrolysis, alopecia. Special Senses: Transient blurred vision, xanthopsia. Renal: Renal failure, renal dysfunction, interstitial nephritis, hematuria (following intravenous use). Urogenital: Impotence. Whenever adverse reactions are moderate or severe, thiazide dosage should be reduced or therapy withdrawn. Chlorothiazide sodium for injection, USP should be reserved for patients unable to take oral medication or for emergency situations. For additional Safety Information, please see Full Prescribing Information. You are encouraged to report Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) to American Regent Inc. at 1-800-734-9236 or to the FDA by visiting www.fda.gov/MedWatch or calling 1-800-FDA-1088.